Dressing the undressed

Two questions perplexed me about our concept of women empowerment – 1. when people justify rapes by victim’s  indecent dresses , why should girls wearing jeans get raped ? 2. why women clothes are getting shorter , while men’s remained the same over generations ?


Before answering these questions , there is a basic assumptions that defines most of the girl’s aspirations i.e. they want their male counterparts to respect them as human beings and look beyond their body into their soul .

In this article , we shall try to establish that women should dress decently , not because their society or circumstances asks so , but because its the best way to uphold their dignity and respect . Lets consider the advertisement of Maggi , a 30 second commercial that stresses on its only competitive advantage that it can be prepared in just two minutes . Now , lets understand why women desire or choose to wear short “western” dresses  . This is because they want to feel desirable by men and symbolise freedom from shackles of slavery. Obviously , no men can judge them in a gaze of 30 secs , but for their physical attraction . Thus , similar to the Maggie commercial , the best way for women to make themselves desirable , is by advertising their competitive advantage i.e. their body parts . Thus , when women themselves want to become an object of desire , how can men not be expected to treat them as objects of pleasure . Contrast this to men , why dont they advertise their body parts in public places inspite of six packs trends or muscles ? Simply because , men are not valued by their body but by their monetary status or intellect . So ,while men are judged by worth other than physical body , women are compelled to find other ways to be judged by men , and the easiest way is their body curvatures .


An interesting trend that has emerged in past 100 years is , while women dress length has constantly getting reduced , men’s dress length has remained the same . This is evident if we analyse some Hollywood and bollywood movies , which are reflection of the contemporary society . While men’s costumes have remained almost of same length , women have reduced their length . The questions which arises is – why women’s dress has constantly reduced unlike men ? Well , it can be easily argued by women , that men want to view such appearances and are willing to pay for such , while men argue that women are willing doing this . This viscious cycle will continue , until , boundaries are delineated , especially by the female sections .


When an  incident of a raped women wearing jeans is reported and the rapist comments over the clothes of the girl for the cause of rape , it is ridiculed off . However , understanding of the aspirational level of women and insecurity among  men can help understanding the meaning of such comments . Apart from other economic and social aspirations , women define modernisation by expsoure of their body in public space by limiting their clothing . While wearing jeans cannot explain rapes when viewed in isolation , the insecurity among men about rising women’s aspirations even in dressing reflect their reluctance to allow women to reach their highest aspirational level of undressing themselves .


Women argue that why should only they define their boundaries ? why shouldnt men be asked to stopping desiring such vulgar dresses ? The simple reason is human  psychology – we always feel superior seeing others undressed , naked , disenfranchised , weak and inferior infront of us . So , more the women undress themselves , the more men would enjoy the act , and more they would desire undressing . So , the level of decency which any women can allow themselves to be undressed is by the women themselves . Thus , its for the women to decide and choose not to become an object of pleasure , but a person of character , who is respected for her intellect and values .This can be achieved by wearing decently in public .


But how can we define decency , when its a subjective concept and varies across cultures ? While wearing jeans in USA is decent ,  its considered indecent in India . The answer also lies in the same human psychology mentioned above . While men want other’s undressed , none of them would like their family members to indulge in such acts . Thus , any definition of decency can be deduced from Immuel Kant’s universalisation principle which says that girls / boys can define the dresses as decent , if they wish their family members i.e. mothers , daughters and wives to indulge in such clothing . Such definition will decide if the dress is indecent for the society .


When people , especially women realize which dresses are indecent , they would strive towards wearing only such  clothes that will promote the level of decency in society , thus refusing to become an object of pleasure for men . This awareness will reverse the trend , where women presently seeks to achieve to level of nudity from fully covered body to a state where a women would seek to reach the highest level of decency by fully covered body clothes . Only when this trend is reversed , we can expect the aspiration towards undressing themselves , as a sign of women empowerment , to change towards the urge to become decent  and become truely empowered with dignity and respect from all . This self realisation will reverse the trend from westernisation to Indianisation of dresses .


The Paperwallah 2014 Mains Question Analysis – GS Paper-2


The pattern of question in GS-1 and GS-2 was totally new and caught everyone by surprise. New pattern…a total break from the past…all of it called for recaliberation of strategies.

GS-2 had 20 questions in total, each of 12.5 marks; world limit 200 words for all questions. All this hints at the fact that, more than ever before , time was of essence. One cannot waste precious time by attempting questions which one does not know much about. ‘Beating around the bush’ strategy to get the 1-2 marks( for questions one had no idea about) was a strict no no in the two GS papers today.

GS Paper-2 in particular stressed the immense need to study The Hindu thoroughly on a daily basis without fail. Moreover the new trend reconfirms the fact that now one has to read from a wide horizon – The Hindu, Frontline, high quality books…

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Ocean: Submarine Relief and Water Circulation


Ocean: Submarine Relief and Water Circulation

Water is important for life on the earth. It is required for all life processes, such as, cell growth, protein formation, photosynthesis and, absorption of material by plants and animals. There are some living organisms, which can survive without air but none can survive without water. All the water present on the earth makes up the hydrosphere. The water in its liquid state as in rivers, lakes, wells, springs, seas and oceans; in its solid state, in the form of ice and snow, though in its gaseous state the water vapour is a constituent of atmosphere yet it also forms a part of the hydrosphere. Oceans are the largest water bodies in the hydrosphere. In this lesson we will study about ocean basins, their relief, causes and effects of circulation of ocean waters and importance of oceans for man.


Our earth is the only planet in the solar system which has…

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UPSC / IAS Preparation: Geography Optional by IAS Chanchal Rana (AIR 7, CSE 2013)

Geography tips

Khelo India

This post has been entirely written by IAS Chanchal Rana (AIR 7, CSE 2013). I am merely hosting it. Please direct your queries to him on his fb a/c https://www.facebook.com/chanchal.rana.5 or chanchal.nits@gmail.com

Disclaimer: All that the esteemed reader is to find below are based solely on my experiences with the subject for 3 consecutive attempts. The tips or the sources are not full or final and hence not prescriptive in nature and the reader is expected to use his own wisdom in the course of preparation for the subject.

[I plan to answer/ help all my dear aspirants (HEREINAFTER ADDRESSED as SIR) in the form of FAQs]

My Credibility (if at all it is !!!) for scribbling in this blog::
Attempt Paper-1 Paper-II
1st (CSE 2011) /600 marks 120 145
2nd (CSE 2012)/600 marks 95 170
3rd (CSE 2013)/500 marks 88 130

1. Why should SIR choose Geography as…

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Climatology – Part 1 – Geography

Adiabatic Heating & cooling closed system PV = K So , P decreses , V increases , T decreases
The rising parcel of air expands , as lower pressure outside ( when air ascends ) alows air molecules to push out on the parcel walls
Since , it takes energy for parcel molecles to ” push-out ” on the parcel walls , so they use some of their internal energy in the process
As inernal energy gets used , internal energy decreases , so parcel of air cools . ( temperature of air body is proportional to molecular internal energy ) ( here , internal energy has been used in molecular motion to increase the volume of air .. )

That’s why clouds expand on cooling… Clouds surface area much more than initial surface from where evaporation take place .

Insolation Solar constant = Amount of energy per unit area wavelength 1/ temperature

Factors affecting distribution of Insolation

Angle of Incidence Energy received at surface = Energy * Projected area = Energy * Actual area * cos theta
Also , as angle of incidence increases , the travelling distance increases , causing more scattering , reflection and absorption

Duration of sunshine

Nature of surface albedo – It is the reflecting power of a surface . It is the ratio of reflected radiation from the surface to incident radiation upon it – Click

Solar constant Though almost constant , but varies due to sunspots , etc.
The solar constant, a measure of flux density, is the amount of incoming solar electromagnetic radiation per unit area that would be incident on a plane perpendicular to the rays, at a distance of one astronomical unit.

Dist btn eart and sun Perihelion ( Jan 3 ) – nearer to earth
Aphelion ( July 4 ) – fartherest to earth

Earth is relatively closer to sun during northern hemisphere winter

Transparency of Atmosphere Reflection from dust particles , cloud , gases , vapour particles
Turbidity factor – A measure of the atmospheric transmission of incident solar radiation. Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air.

Heat energy loss processes

When sun rays , consisting of light & heat waves of diff wavelength pass thru molecules of air , watervapour and dust , prism effect takes place
wavelength inversely proportional to scattering – See reyleigh formula
Wavelength of blue less than red , so scattering more of blue colour , so sky is blue – in day
During sunrise and sunset , blue gets too much scattered before reaching our eyes , while red undergoes less scattering and reaches our eyes . That’s why morning sunise apperas red

Condition for Scattering – Dia of molecules wavelength of light , Here no scattering , only diffusion
diffusion of light in all possible direction gives sufficient working light bfore sunrise / after sunset
Diffusion causes solar radiation loss by cloud , dust particles

defined as process in which incident radiation is retained by substance and is irreversibly converted to some other form of energy

When a gas molecules absorbs light waves , this energy is transformed into internal molecular motion which causes a rise in temperature

O2 + 1/2 O2 ( in presence of sunlight forms Ozone – Here , solar energy is absorbed to form ozone , especially the UV radiation of solar energy
water vapour is the most imp & efficient absorber of UV radiation of larger wavelength
CO2 also absorbs incoming solar radiation

* After gases absorb incoming solar radiation , they gets heated by conversion of radiant energy into heat – moecular motion increases by heat addition
Higher the temperature of a source , shorter is the wavelength emitted by the source .
Thus these gases start emitting the heat as long wavelength radiation
Cloud drops , have no absorption , only scattering and diffusion .. Why ?

Green house effetct
Loss of solar radiation is proportional to water vapor quantity ( as more water vapor , more absorption of heat )
water vapour opaque to longer IR , (which is emitted by the earth’s surface – long bcoz temp is low ) and is transparent to shorter IR
So , water vapour is the most effective regulator of surface temperature . – Bcoz water vapour / water has high coeffienct of lateral expansion compared to other gases , so absorbs more heat than CO2 , etc..

Also , as water vapour absorbs much heat , so diurnal range of temp. in humid areas is less than diurnal range of temp. in arid areas.

Reflection Albedo – See above

More cloud – thick cloud – more albedo
Obliquity of sun’s rays – more oblique rays – more albedo
Nature of surface – Ice ( maximum albedo ) > sand – > grass – > dry earth – > wet earth

Heat Budget TBD


Condensation It is a process by which water vapour passes into liquid state or water
Sublimation Ice to vapour or vapour to ice directly , without passing through liquid state
Melting solid to liquid
Freezing liquid to solid
Transpiration moisture loss from vegetation
Evapo – transpiration combined effects of evaporation &transpiration from vegetation covered land areas.

The surplus of precipitation over evaporation found in equatorial & (40-70 N/S ) – So , huge amount of heat energy is gained in the atmosphere thru latent heat of condensation of the vapours to form clouds ( some may doubt , ki less evaporation mean less vapour , but here , moisture is very high bcoz of high ppt , so even if evaporation is low comaprtivly, more moisture causes cloud formation releasing latent heat of condensation ) ..
( this means more precipitaion than evaporation , which means more cloud formation which means more release of latent heat of condensation , so atmosphere warms )
The surplus of evaporation over precipitation found in (10-40 N/S )
( this means more evaporation than precipitation , which means heat energy of atmosphere transformed into latent heat of evaporation so atmosphere cools )

However , planetary winds , cyclones , ocean currents and other atmospheric disturbances removes the latitudinal heat imbalances

Water holding capacity of air increases with increase in temperature , bcoz space btn air molecules increases , thus more water molecules can fit in the space , and vice-versa

Water is said to be saturated at a given temperature , when the water vapour content in air is = capacity of air water can hold { at a given temp. }
The amount of water vapour a given mass of air can hold at a given temp. is known as its capacity

If air reaches saturation , then on further cooling , it condenses . In absense of a condensation nuclei , condensation starts at a temp < Dew point – See cloud theories .. For clear mechanism of condensation

Dew point – The temp. to which air has to be cooled in order to reach saturation Still needs more clarity

Dew point of ascending air decreases with altitude @ 2 degree C per km ———— Why ?
Since water vapour holding capacity of air increases with increasing temperature , the air in equaotorial belt has a higher dew point than that in higher latitudes — ———– Why ?

Howver , to reach a water without lowering its temp can be achieved by increasing moisture .

Relative Humidity Ratio of amount of water vapour in air to the amount of vapour air can hold at that temperature

If air is saturated , then relative humidity is 100%

Relative humidity = ( Vapour pressure / Saturated vapour pressure ) * 100

As temp decreases , volume decreases , but as water vapour is constant , so RH will increase

Water holding capacity increases with increase in temp….
Maximum RH as equator , as air is very moist . At 30-40 – subsiding air , dry , so RH decreases . Btn 40-60 , T goes on decreasing , RH increases gradually . Beyond , RH decreases
In tropical regions , summer wet & winters dry , so RH in summer more than RH in winter . In higher latitudes , humid winters record higher % of RH )

In morning , min temp . And maximum RH . In mid-afternoon , maximum T & min. RH


Evaporation is a cooling process – Why ? Bcoz when when evaporation occurs , latent heat of vaporization is used to evaporate a given liquid , thus energy of the system containing liquid decreases , thus temperature also decreases .
So , more evaporation , more cooling , more comfortable we feel . That's why Dogs protudes their tongue to feel cooler in summer .

Evaporation rate is high in drier areas than in humid areas , where Relative humidity is high .
That’s why , we feel comfortable if we are away from coastal areas , then in areas which are nearer to the coast . Ex : Patna vs Kolkata ……. In kolkata , evaporaion reduces bcoz relative humidity is very high .. So sweat don’t dry up .

During evaporation , water molecules absorb energy which gives them energy/motion required to escape from surface of liquid and becomes a gas . As energy is used of the liquid , thus the energy of liquid decreases , thus it becomes cooler .

The vapour temperature increases , as energy of liquid is transferred to the gas , so gas gets hotter and surrounding water body cooler , while in condensation , the energy of vapour is transferred to surrounding air , causing increase of surrounding gas and formation water droplets

Heat absorbed during Evaporation is k/as latent heat of vaporisation

The reservoir of energy to maintain earth's surface temperature against cooling effect of evaporation is supplied by solar radiation

Factors affecting Evaporation

Amt of wate available i.e Quantity ( oceans vs continent )
Temperature – As temp increases , RH decreases , so evaporation increases
Relative Humidity – As RH decreases , vapour pressure decreases , evaporation increases ——– Bcoz as RH increases , vapour pressure increases , so rate of evaporation decreases , bcoz vapour pressure is pressure of air exerted by its molecules over evaporating body . So if VP increases , more pressurised evaporating body – so molecules in water have to gather more energy to escape the water body .
Wind speed – As WS increases , it decreases vapor pressure as turbulence in air drives away vapour , so as speed increases , evaporation increases
Surface Area – As SA increases , evaporation increases
Air pressure – Low pressure , low vapour pressure , more evaporation
Water composition – dirty water , less evaporation

Potential Evapo- transpiration
evaporation and transpiration from plants, together called evapotranspiration, transfers water to the atmosphere
It is an idealized condition in which there be enuf rainfall to provide sufficint moisture for all possible evapo-transpiration in an area .
In places , having surplus of ppt over evapotranspiration are marked by surplus water for storage .
In areas , where ppt less than evapotranspiration , no water for storage . Stored water evaporates , so soil becomes dry & vegetation gets parched up

Condensation Process of water vapor changing to liquid state

If a given air body is cooled below its dew point , water vapor becomes liquid . { in presence of a condensation liquid , super cooled water freezes , else remains super cooled water }

Doubt – In childhood , learnt that water evaporates at 100 degree C & freezes at 0 degree C at standard pressure and temp , . But here it is saying that tempearture can change for condensation . .. My view is that after reaching reaching 100% Relative humidity (by decreasing upto Dew point ) .. when T is decreased further , P is constant , so volume must decrease , so molecules gets compressed , which eventually converts gas to liquid , even though temp is not 100 degree C or 0 degree C
That’s why , only after reaching dew point , crystallisation / condensation can occur

So , comndensation can occur by ,
addition of further water vapour to saturate the air , and further adding vapour beyond the saturation point .. So in moist areas , dew point is higher
reduction of its temperature beyond dew point — In dry area , to achieve condensation , vapour must be cooled to a greater extent i.e. dew point is much lower , bcoz RH is low .. Ex – rajasthan , in nights , water condense – as nights are very cold …. as RH is low..

Latent heat of condensation Condensation releases the energy of vapour to vapour to surrounding air , thus surrounding air gets warmer on condensation.. As energy of vapour is transferred to surrouding air – From this , arises the concept of dry and wet adiabatic lapse rate
This addition of heat lowers the cooling of air / surrounding air

**If air contains small dust particles , condensation starts aftr air has cooled much below its dew point.. Doubt –I think , presence of hygroscopic nuclei must ease the process of condejnstion

For clouds , saturation of air ( by decreasing temp upto dew point or increasing RH) and presence of hygroscopic nuclei – sea sals or SO2 or SO3 or nitric oxides


Beyond 80 km Gas don’t mix so
N2 at bottom
O2 above N2
Helium ( He ) above O2

upto the height of 80 Km gas mixes

Based on Gases M for Mesosphere / M for middle

Thermosphere / Ionosphere + Exosphere Temp increases with increasing height , as sun effect is more pronounced than adiabatic lapse rate Beyond

Mesosphere Temp decreases with increasing height upto 80
In the mesosphere, the temperature decreases with height again, because there is very little ozone to warm up the air.

Stratosphere Temp increases with increasing height , bcoz of Ozone layer upto 50
Upto 50 km at both Equator and poles

Tropopause Isothermal Zone – No change in Temp.
2 km width

Troposphere / Ionosphere Temp decreases with increasing height 0 – 8/18
50% of atmospheric gases lies in first 5 km due to gravity , so convection , conduction , sublimation occurs here
Earth is blue planet , bcoz of Troposphere as it regulates T of earth & gives energy to eart , as most atmospheric gases are here
Equator – upto 18km / Poles – upto 8 km
More loss of temp at equator as width was 18 km.. So Temp at Equator = -79 degree C
Less loss of temp at poles , as width was 8 km .. So Temp at poles = -58 degree C

Based on layers

Pressure Belts

Principles : Covective instability + radiational cooling + corollis + Geostropic + subsidence = anticyclonic
As temperature increases , Gas gets heated up , volume expands , density decreases , so moves up as it becomes lighter
On rising , air cools , loses heat due to release of latent heat of condensation (+ adiabatic heating – I think )
Cold air now starts moving towards heat , and gets cooled by radiational cooling , thus density increases and it becomes heavier .
Also corollis force gets stronger with increasing distance from equator . Which produces a blocking effect and causes subsidence

Thermally induced
Equatorial trough of Low Pressure

Location 7 N – 5 S – ( more heat in norhtern hemisphere ) . In july , extends upto 20 N in Africa
Temp. Very high temperature due to insolation..
Pressure Low pressure , as air rises up as it becomes lighter on being heated causing expansion
Rainfall Heavy rainfall due to convective instability { rising moist air condenses – releases latent heat of condensation in upper layers , gets saturated , and causes rainfall..}
Insolation Insolation is 100 %
Names Zone of convergence / Doldrums { Zone of convergence as trade winds converge , Doldrums as keeps on shifting with shifting of the sun.. Just like drum rolls. So does it..
Corollis Zero
Winds Air rises up + trade winds converge – winds are light and variable with frequent calms..
Mechanism Low pressure is formed due to high insolation as sun rays are vetical , thus very high temp + Tropical warm air being supplied by constant prevailing trade winds

Polar high Pressure Belt

Location 75-90 – ( more heat in norhtern hemisphere )
Temp. Very low temperature
Pressure Fomation of anti-cyclones – Very high pressure due to heavy subsiding air as well as low temp
Insolation Insolation is less than 40%
Names High Pressure polar cap
Corollis Maximum
Winds cold winds subside as winds outflow of cold region –
Mechanism Though corollis is maximum causing thinning of air , but since the temp is extremely low , so thinning effect is -ve , helped by cold subsiding air..

Dynamically induced

Sub – tropical High Pressure belt

Location 25-35
Temp. Air cools due to radiational cooling and becomes heavier , thus subsides after blocked by corollis effect . At surface , temp is high ( btn 25-35 , but subsiding sir is more powerful.
Pressure Subsiding air increases the pressure of the region
Rainfall Descending air is dry , so no rainfall .. Also moisture holding capacity increases as air descends .
Names Horse latitude – bcoz of calm winds
Corollis Corollis force keeps on increasing causing blocking effect and thus convergence
Winds winds after spreading from equator , when spread towards poles is acted upon by geostrophic effect , thus they become westerlies .. On descending forms anticyclonic condition
Mechanism geostratic force + radiational cooling + corollis force

Sub- Polar low pressure belts
Location 60-70
Temp. Temp is low
Pressure Though temp induces high pressure winds , but ascending air due to forced convergence of air , creates low pressure
Rainfall Very low , bcoz of located over land in northern hemisphere

For hemisphere wise distribution of pressure belts – See Savinder singh – Pg 452
For shifitng of pressure belts , see Savinder singh – Pg 453

Planetary wind system But as far as I know , angular momentum at equator is zero..

Equatorial Westerlies angular momentum

Location Found in the doldrum area btn 5N – 5S / btn the ITCZ
Temp. Very high temp..
Pressure Extremely low pressure
Insolation With apparent movement of sun , it also moves – as thus is a fluctuating pulsating line
Corollis Nearly zero , so winds are not deflected , but winds produced due to angular momentum
Mechanism Apart from angular momentum , their origin is the convergence and uplifting of air which is compensated by westerlies flows..

ITCZ The low pressure area – due to meeting of trade winds .
shifts with the apparent shift of the sun.
NITCZ Convergence of equatorial westerlies and NE trade winds btn 5-10 N
SITCZ Convergence of equatorial westerlies and SE trade winds

Trade Winds
Location originate from Horse latitudes . In south hemisphere , more wide spread, constant and prevalent through-out year due to ST high pressure belt
Names Trade wind bcoz they are constant in direction and velocity thru-out the year . The name derived from trade.. To keep track using same direction
Corollis In NH , deflected right forming north easterly , and in the south – deflected left.. Forming south easterly Trade winds

Subtropical Winds

** there is an inversion layer in atmosphere which is not a favourable factor for condensation.. So hot deserts are found on western margins btn 20-30 latitude– 100 % nhi aaya samajh mei..

belt of calm known as Horse latitude

anti-cyclonic condition with clear and dry weather…

Location 35-60/65 – the poleward boundary fluctuates with seasons..
Winds From horselatitude to subpolar low pressure belt -A large number of travelling cyclones and anti-cyclones make the belt in this belt highly variable.. Highly variable winds as travels thru varying continental features .
Mechanism creation of Polar front – Bcoz , During the winter season , the poleward boundary of westeries in the vicinity of sub-polar trough of low pressure experiences great thrusts of polar air …It is here that the great polar air masses moving equatorward clash with relatively warmer air masses from low latitudes . The result is creation of a surface of discontinuity called polar front..

Polar winds

Tricellular Meridional Circulation Horizontal transport of Heat and angular momentum

Potential energy generated by unequal heating of earth…and its atmosphere is continuosly being transferred into kinetic energy by ascent and descent of heated and cold air respectively.

Tropical cell Hadley cell Convective instability + Latent heat + 10 to 30
The meeting of the trade winds in the equatorial region forms the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). 
The trade winds pick up latent heat across the warm tropical oceans, and are forced to rise by violent convection currents. – bcoz of convective instability
The unstable warm moist air is rapidly cooled adiabatically to produce towering cumulonimbus clouds, frequent thunderstorms and low pressure characteristics of the equatorial climate.
It is these upward currents that form the 'powerhouse of the general global circulation' and which turn latent heat intosensible heat and later into potential energy.

As rising air cools to the temperature of the surrounding environment air, uplift ceases and it begins to move away from the Equator. 
Further cooling by radiational cooling , increasing density, and diversion by the Coriolis force cause the air to slow down and to subside forming the descending limb of the Hadley Cell

The poleward outflow of air from the equator is called the antitrades..
While moving from low to higher latitudes , these upper tropospheric winds are subjected to progressively increasing coriolis force , as a result of which they are deflected and become geostrophic westerlies
high degree of Angular momentum is being transferred

According to Thermal theory , latitudinal temperature difference btn the tropics and the higher latitude is the main driving forve
According to Dynamic theory , instability of equatorial masses ( convective instability ) is the driving force
However , both theories complement each other.

Ferrel cell Polar front cell 30-60 35-65

The surface airflow is directed towards the pole , and bcoz of coriolis force the winds blow almost from west to east
the cell is characterised by multiple weather conditions .
Bcoz of the upper air convergences , a jet stream or high velocity westerlies are created at ht. of 10-12 kms
The horizonta surface movement of the cell is in the form of westerlies which completes the circulation
The prevailing westerlies are disrupted frequently by migratory extra-tropical cyclones and anti-cyclones
D S Lal * A westerly flow exists in the upper troposhere in mid-latitudes .
If we take into account the conservation of angular momentum , then the upper air flow in this cell should be easterly…
But according to Rossby , the westerly momentum is transferred to middle latitudes from the upper branches of the cells in high and low latitudes
Didn’t understand – ———-The cause of upper air westerlies is the poleward decrease of temperature . In winter , when meridional temperature gradient is steepest , the upper air westerlies are most intense.

These upper-troposhere weesterelies are characterized by long waves and jet streams
Refer pg 114 D S lal for doubts The upper air westerlies play a signifant role in transfer of both air and energy

Polar or sub-polar cell

thermally induced cell
Subsidence near the poles produces a surface flow that , while moving towards the equator , comes under corollis force and becomes polar easterly
The cold polar easterlies clash with warm warmer westerlies of temperate regions .
The zone of contact btn these air-flows of contrasting nature is called polar-front
Then , sir is up-drafted and at a altitude of 6-8 km , there is upper air divergences & anti-cyclogenesis and part of air is deflected towards the pole and subsidises near 75-90 & reinforcing High pressure system
This complete the entire cycle
When upper-air divergence is resent , another jet stream is present k/as Polar Jet stream . This is k/for the creation of Rozby waves

Not understood It is characterized by horizontal turbulent mixing at all levels .
Here , heat transport is accomplished by waves in the westerlies .
To sum up , in tropical regions the exchange of heat and momentum is accomplished by direct circulations
In middle to high latitudes , the transfer of mean potential energy to man kinetic enrgy is effected thru the energy of cyclones and anti-cyclones

Significance of meridional circulation the term " meridional exchange " is imp….

most effective channel of meridional exchange of heat and momentum .
The areas of convergence and divergence play dominant roles in meridional circulation

Ekman theory explains the theoretical state of circulation if water currents were driven only by the transfer of momentum from the wind. In the physical world, this is difficult to observe because of the influences of many simultaneous currentdriving forces (for example, pressure and density gradients). Though the following theory technically applies to the idealized situation involving only wind forces, Ekman motion describes the wind-driven portion of circulation seen in the surface layer.[3][4]
Surface currents flow at a 45° angle to the wind due to a balance between the Coriolis force and the drags generated by the wind and the water.[5] If the ocean is divided vertically into thin layers, the magnitude of the velocity (the speed) decreases from a maximum at the surface until it dissipates. The direction also shifts slightly across each subsequent layer (right in the northern hemisphere and left in the southern hemisphere). This is called the Ekman spiral.[6] The layer of water from the surface to the point of dissipation of this spiral is known as the Ekman layer. If all flow over the Ekman layer is integrated, the net transportation is at 90° to the right (left) of the surface wind in the northern (southern) hemisphere.[2]

Jet stream TBD

Defined as swift geostrophic air streams in upper troposhere that meander in relatively narrow belts
These are strong cores of upper level westerly winds which follow a meandering path

The jet streams are relatively narrow bands of stronger winds bounded by slower moving air.
thousands of KMs in length , a few 100 KMs in width and two or more KMs in vertical thickness

It is almost entirely a thermal wind and its strength is proportional to the T contrast thru the whole layer below

Fog and Clouds

Both are same in respect of appearance and structure .
Howver Fog forms near the surface , whereas clouds form at a much higher altitude.
Fog form as a result of radiation cooling or movement of air over a cold surface , while clouds are formed when air rises , expands and cool adiabatically – Note , We were taught that clouds form when water condense due to cooling at upper altitude alround a nuclei and when its capacity is full , it rains… But if , adiabatic cooling doesnt takes place , clouds arent formed.. kyunki cooling se fog banta hai… 🙂
Fog may also form thru saturation of the of the air by increasing its water vapour content


Fog is said to exist , only when visibility is less than 1 km
Fog occur during calm or light wind conditions
Generally whitish , but in polluted cities , it looks dirty yellow or grey

Fog occurs during calm or light wind conditions
It is more common in the vicinity of ocean where there is abundant supply of misture
Common duruing winter


The cooling process that produces fog, frost, and dew is either radiation or advection. On the other hand, clouds usually develop from a cooling process that results when a parcel of air on Earth’s surface is lifted into the atmosphere.

The rising parcel of air will expand as it encounters decreasing atmospheric pressure with height. This expansion allows the air molecules to spread out, which causes the parcel’s temperature to decrease. This is known as adiabatic coolingand occurs at the constant lapse rate of approximately 10°C per 1000 meters At Dry adiabatic lapse rate
However, the rising and cooling parcel of air will eventually reach its dew point—the temperature at which water vapor begins to condense out, forming cloud droplets.
From this point on, the adiabatic cooling of the rising parcel will decrease as latent energy released by the condensation process is added to the air. k/as wet adiabatic lapse rate
*On the other hand, the warming temperatures of descending air allow it to hold greater quantities of water vapor.In other words, as the air temperature rises farther above the dew point, condensation will not occur, so the heat of condensation will not affect the rate of rise in temperature. Thus, the temperature of air that is descending and being compressed always increases at the dry adiabatic rate

Clouds also play an important role in the heat energy budget . This is because clouds absorb a part of incoming solar radiation . They reflect some of the incoming solar radiation back to space and also diffuse some of it . Cloud also absorb a part of terrestrial radiation and then re-radiate it back to the surface . Cloud , like a black body , radiate heat continously in proportion to their temperatures .
So , in absence of clouds , days wud have been much warmer and nights much colder ( tabhi salimpur mei ppl say , aaj badri kail hai.. Isliye garmi bhut hai aaj.)

Maximumcloudiness btn 30-60 latitudes, as there are cyclones and fronts

Classification of Clouds


strato= low level alto = middle level cirro (meaning high-level cloud )

cumulus= a rounded shape stratus = layered shape

nimbus,meaning precipitation (rain is falling )

High – 5-13km Middle – 2-7km Low -0 – 2 km
Cirrus Alto-cumulus Strato -cumulus will form drizzle & most common type of clouds
Cirro-cumulus Alto-stratus Cumulus Foound over oceans
Cirro-stratus Cumulo-nimbus vertical clouds , produced by convection
Nimbo-stratus horizontal – produced by mixing
High clouds never rain & they aree made up of Ice-crystal
Cumulus – mass of H2O My observation : cumulus clouds over stratus , bcoz round shape , high bouyant force – rises
White cloud never rain
Dark clouds rains


It refers to the fall/release of moisture in the form of water droplets or ice crystals , under the influence of gravity

Geographical Adv : Atmospheric circulations are primarily inolved in transfer of moisture and heat . The differences in the moisture and heat brings about the changes in meterological condtn , thus precipation plays a role in transfer them .
Precipitation also plays an imp. Role in running the hydrological cycle which is essential cause of all the life cycles & geo-material processes .

Processes Insolation Evaporation

Gravity falls Condensation

Melting / Sublimation Crystallization

Though all clouds contain water , some produce precipitation
Even when precipatated moisture does fall from clouds , it gets evaporated in atmosphere before actually reaching earth's surface

Colloidal Stability Rain doesn’t occur

After condensation when water droplets have been formed Bcoz in some cases , condensation do not takes place
and the water droplets are of uniform size
and the cloud is stable

When water vapour is cooled down adiabatically , condensation takes place among solid nucleii k/as hygroscopic nucleii .
Condensation means water vapour into ice-crystal or tiny water droplets ranging less than 10 micro-meters in diameter
Condensation takes place at temp. which is k/as Dew point while freezing point of water is 0 degree C – i.e water changes to ice

When clouds are unstable , and the size of the droplets are heterogenous , then colloidal instability occurs & thus causes precipitation

* Only when relative humidity is 100% , the air column is said to be saturated & only after saturation , condensation can take place

Ice – Crystal Theory by Bergeron

Background A water remains in liquid state in super cooled state without freezing , even below 0 degree C
These supercooled droplets freeze when they come in contact with solid nuclei

B vapour diffuses rapidly to ice crystals , so that ice -crystals begin to grow at the expense of water droplets ( I understand that more ice is formed than water , bcoz of Relative humidity concept – See D S Lal pg 181 .. I cudnt understand the concept clearly )

So , When a solid nuclei is introduced into a cloud of supercooled water droplets ( or in an air column saturated with Relative humidity 100% – both mean the same ) ,then condensation takes place forming 1st ice crystal . The diameter of solid nuclei can vary from 1-10 micromater

After forming the first ice-crystal , the ice crystal rapidly grows **************************************This abrupt change i.e sublimation is caused by diff. vapour pressures existing over super-cooled water droplets and ice crystals at the same time.. D s lal pg 181 pptn occur after formation of ice-crystals

The growth of ice-crystals is rapid enough to generate crystals large enough to fall under gravity. When ice crystal grows more than 10 microeter , it begins to fall

***********Due to gravity , it is shattered and again thrown back into the upper layer due to convection . Thus tiny fragments of ice-crystals become the nucleii for further condensation & crysatllisation – Alok ranjan . When cloud is saturated with water , relative humidity factor is 100% and when cloud is saturated with ice -crystals , RH is 115% at 10 degree C

While falling from cloud , the ice crystals grow by intercepting cloud-droplets that freeze upon them . A chain reaction takes place . D S lal

These ice crystals by COAGULATION grow further in size to become snowflakes before leaving the cloud

When clouds are saturated with ice-crystals , the colloidal instability is more that result is their fall.When they enter the warm air crystals are melted and rain droplets are formed

Snowflakes generally melt before reaching the ground and fall as rain

But , for lower clouds . i.e. at an altitude of 500 to 2 km , freezing point is not seen
For cumulus clouds above the ocean , ice crystal theory fails
They best explains clouds for temperate and polar regions

Collision- Coalesence Theory

For cumulus clouds above the ocean , ice crystal theory fails
It is not dependent on formation of ice-crystals

Above the sea surface and coastal areas in upper air , sea salts are in suspendedposition .
This sea salts have diff charges or ionisation . Thus they are mutually attracting each other

Condensation takes place even at a higher temp than freezing point . The oceanic clouds are saturated even at 7 degree C , bcoz the saturation depends on the supply of moisture
Thus condensation are dependent on 2 factors
Vapour Pressure
Mutual attraction btn salts and water vapour
Once saturation takes place & condensation begins tiny water droplets are formed .

since the rate of fall of these unequal particles is diff. , they collide with each other within the cloud , and the larger drop grows

The forms of condensation mutually collide and coalesce , thus larger droplets are formed more than 200 micrometer and fall as precipitation

The colloidal instability is very often reached in the clouds above sea , bcoz at lower height , turbuence is greater

Types of Precipitation TBD

Convectional Precipiation

Orographic Precipitation

Cyclonic or Frontal Precipitation

Distribution of Rainfall TBD

Question Answers

Which of the following climates is associated with dry summer and rainy winter? Read the following statement with respect to temperate cyclone. Read the following statement with respect to Polar Vortex. The temperature and rainfall of a Match List Iwith List IIand select the
(a) Mediterranean 1. They are extra tropical cyclone. 1. It is large scale cyclone located near the geographical poles of the earth. meteorological station are given below: correct answer using the codes given
(b) Tropical 2. They are located at mid-latitude belts. 2. In Northern Hemisphere it circulates in clockwise direction Temp. Rainfall (°C) (cm) below the lists: List I List II (Local wind) (Region)
(c) Tundra 3. They follow easterly path. 3. The circulation of Polar Vortex is due to Coriolis effect. J 9.4 12.2 A. Fohn 1. Argentina
(d) Semi-arid 4. They rotate in clockwise direction. Which of the following statement is F 10.6 9.1 B. Samun 2. Kurdistan
a Which of the following statements with respect to temperate cyclone is correct? correct? M 11.7 9.7 C. Santa Ana 3. California
(a) 1,2 (a) 1,2 A 12.2 2.5 D. Zonda 4. Alps
Where is the doldrums belt located? (b) 1,2,3 (b) Only 1 M 13.3 1.8 Codes:
(a) Near the Equator (c) 1,4 (c) 1,3 J 13.9 0.3 A B C D
(b) Near the Poles (d) All of the above (d) All of the above J 13.9 – (a) 2 4 1 3
(c) Near the Tropic of Cancer a c A 14.4 – (b) 4 2 3 1
(d) Near the Tropic of Capricorn S 15.6 0.8 (c) 2 4 3 1
a O 15.0 2.5 (d) 4 2 1 3
N 13.3 6.1 b
The most important activity of the D 10.6 11.7
Tundra region is Average temperature: 12.8°C
(a) Fish farming (b) Cattle rearing Average rainfall: 54.9 cm per annum
(c) Hunting (d) Cropping Identify the region having the above climatic pattern from amongst the following:
c (a) Mediterranean region
(b) Monsoon region
(c) Steppe region
(d) NW European region

Economic impact of British rule in India

MSMEs – Handicrafts and cottage industry Artisans and Handicraftsmen Unemployment Led to ruralisation – opposite of Urbanisation – decline of cities

Bcoz of merchantlism policy. ( see mrunal ) by Charter Act of 1813 , – it allowed one way free trade
Free import with high tariff for export
Machine made products cud nt compete with hand-made products
Destruction of traditional industry
Unemployment of artisans and Handicraftsmen Another source of unemployment was the loss of traditional patronage – bcoz kingdom and their administration including economy was controlled by British

This broke the age-old relation between agriculture and industry in the countryside and led to the destruction of the self-sufficient Indian village economy. This also resulted in widespread unemployment and overcrowding of the agricultural sector.

Thus Destruction of indeginous traditional industry
Agriculture Peasants Moneylenders Zamindars Commercialisation

Increased pressure on land due to ruralisation leading to fragmentation of land furter..

High revenue rents by British along with role of Zamindars by Permanent settlement , led to exploitation.
With less capital in hand , with a bare minimum profit , there was no incentive to invest in agriculture or in modern technology , thus productivity was stagnant , and led to starvation and deaths during distress periods..

Moneylenders To meet the high revenue demands – The overburdened peasants approached the money lenders to pay dues to Zamindars . The money lender who was also grain merchant , forced the farmer to sell at low prices.. ( that’s why APMC was passed )

Zamindars Emergence of new Zamindars and middlemen due to permanent settlement system – thus increasing the burden on peasant
The absentee Zamindars used to lease or let their lands to ijaradars and pattidars.In turn the latter gave the land on rent to others. Thus a large number of intermediaries came into being between the government and the peasants. 

Thus – subsistence farming Thus , productivity fell that led to subsistence farming leading to frequent femines during distress perios and deaths and mass starvation – –
To help a few , Commercialisation of Agriculture took place

Certain specialised crops began to be grown for sale in international markets ( local market was nt developed due to low PPP ) like cotton ,jute , etc. and plantation sector i.e coffee , rubber , tea

Thus Fluctuations in international market esp during 1866 led to indebtness and femine and agrarian riots in Deccan in 1870s


Capital Rush of foreign capital bcoz of diminishing investments at home…. While Indian industrialists faced credit problems
Labour Indians were cheap labour than England workers There was a rush of foreign capital due to prospects of high profits , cheap labour , cheap and readily available raw maerials , ready market at home , administration support , diminishing investments at home
Govt role Favourable govtpolicies like one way free trade + no tariff prottection + govt administration support for British investments Indian industriesin 19th century suffered from – credit problems , no tariff protection , unequal competition from foreign companies and stiff opposition from british capitalist interests who were backed by fiannce and technical infra at home.
Infra British introduced railways and the post and the telegraph network , for free movement of goods and communication.. Which was not possible for Indians
Raw material Aplenty of Raw material in India . Esp. raw cotton to be used in British industries
Technology Access to modern technology unlike Indian counterparts…
Market Ready made export market for raw materials and Indian market for finished prodcuts like British cloths .

Thus unequal competition throlled Indian industries and gave huge profits to British counter-parts..

Thus From being a net exporter . India became a net importer

Overall impact
Economy core industries were neglected –
India became a dependent economy for finished goods and supplier of raw materials
Poverty increased – leading to femines , deaths , riots…

Geography Regional disparities in terms of development

Sociology – HRD Lack of technical education , led to shortage of sufficient technical manpower .. Japan rose.. India didn’t bcoz of lack of education
Rise of industrialist capitalist class and working class

Polity Rise of middle class intelligentsia.. Which will lay the stone for INC and Indian clerks ( pub-ad )

Nationalist Critique of Colonial Economy Dadabhai Naroji – Economic Drain theory – Poverty and Unbritish rule in India R C Dutt – Economic history of India

In the first half of 19th cetury , they were under the impression that it wud modernise the country based on latest technology and capital based on capitalist economic organisation . Just like nowadays , FDI and technology transfers is emphasises now . But then , tech transfer didnt take place.. and neither capital in core industries… 😛

This drain of wealth began in the decades following the battle of Plassey in 1757.

Federal structure in India


The last emperor of Moghul dynasty did not mind to delegate the civil administration authority to the East India Company, which was the first historic blunder that paved the way for the Company rule.
Genesis of idea of federalism in India was first traced in Simon Commission, “Indian Statutory Commission” appointed in 1927. The Commission was meant for revision of the Constitution for India. In its report in 1930, the Commission recommended the evolution of India into “a federation of self-governing units”.
The representatives of Princely States declared during the First Round Table Conference 1930-32) that they would join an “All India federation with a self-governing British India”
By Government of India Act 1935, the background was ready for making India to become a federation with 11 Governor’s Provinces and 650 Native States, who supposed to have fifty per cent seats in Council of States. However, execution of the instrument of accession was the pr erequisite to form the Federation, which could not become a reality

The Cabinet Mission Plan in 1946 contemplated the division of the country into three Zones . The Center was supposed to be uniting point of these three zones, with its power confined only to Defence, Foreign Affairs and Communication. Constituent Assembly was to be divided into three sections according to the Zonal Scheme for evolving provincial and group Constitutions. Indian National Congress was advocating for a strong center from the beginning. In fact, the Cabinet Mission Plan which resulted in weak center proved to be a disaster as the country was bifurcated.
While presenting the Partition scheme, Lord Mount batten insisted the major parties to agree for partition to have the federation with a strong center, instead of weak center as contemplated in Cabinet Mission Plan.

Unification of scattered Indian states within the sub-continent and a violent partition . The framers of the Constitution intended to secure the hard-won freedom with integrity and preferred a strong union within a federation,
Ambedkar said that the Indian federation was a “Union” because it was indissoluble, and no state had a right to secede from the Indian Union . Bcoz , Th e t erm ‘f ederation ’ i s derived from a Latin word foedus which means ‘treaty ’ or ‘agreement ’.
In Keshavananda Bharathi case, the Supreme Court said that the federal character of the Constitution was its basic feature
Most of the federations in the world came into existence because of two or three independent states coming together. In India the process is reverse. Originally it was a vast unitary state with several provinces as administrative units. Indian federation was not the result of an agreement between the federating states. A federat ion can be formed in two ways, that is, by way of integration ( USA ) or by way of disintegration ( Canada ) .

The non Congress Governments in the states opposed the increasing centralisation and intervention of the Central government.They raised the issue of state autonomy and demanded more powers and financial resources to the states. This caused tensions and conflicts in Centre– state relations.

Why Federalism ? Federal constitution provides for expression of regional goals and national objectives. it will be helpful in justifying the formation of new states

There are two levels of government above local level, with sovereignty in certain specific areas. The Central government will be having sole authority to coin money, raise an army and declare war, while intermediate level of government, i.e., states or provinces have sole authority to regulate education, criminal law, or civil law, citizens deal with both levels of government.
Federal Government can absorb some of the costs of new technology or programs that would have to be absorbed completely by member units in a unitary system
Federation is suitable to a plural society with multiple cultures and multiple language speaking populations . It can accommodate the aspirations and sovereign interests of different provinces with ethnic groups, linguistic characteristics.
The core idea of having three lists can be summarised in the following way. There are some subjects that need uniform treatment across the country (currency, defence), which should be on the Union list. Some subjects have a local character and each state may be best positioned to decide on the way to handle them — these can be included on the state list. There is a third category of items, on which some level of national uniformity is desirable but with the flexibility to tailor to local needs — these can be included in the concurrent list. Therefore, one way to deal with concurrent list items is for Parliament to make a skeletal law, leaving room for states to fill in the details according to local requirements.
Federalism allows countries involved to maximize the growth and political strength, while at the same time allowing the expressions of regional characteristics
the large size of the countryand its socio cultural diversity.
ensures the efficient governance of the country
re-conciles nationa lunity with regional autonomy.

While China is Unitary, other four big nations like, Canada, the United States, Brazil and Australia are the federations. The USSR was also a federation, till it had split into some smaller federations. Mexico, Venezuela and Argentina in Latin America; Nigeria in Africa; Switzerland Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia (till it was split into nations) in Europe and India in Asia are the other federations.

Switzerland Switzerland chose federal system as that suits its three language groups, German, French and Italian. It recognizes three official languages

Germany Germany also adopted the federal s ystem. Instead of dividing the powers between the Bund (Central Government) and Lander (Member Units), the German Constitution provides for broad area of concurrent jurisdiction.The Upper House of the National Legislature, the Bundesrat, is chosen by the Lander Governments and has an absolute veto over matters of ‘national’ concern

Ambedkar used the term Union to make it clear that states had no right to secede from the Union to set themselves into separate States. He said that this Union was Federation and called it a flexible federation to say that it was not as rigid as the American Constitut ion was.

USA Indestructible union of indestructible states ( i.e Union cant change the area of states ) — while India is a indestructible Union of destructible states ( India mei itna diversity hai… its necessary to give flexibility to meet the regiional aspirations )
In US, the principle of equality of representation of states in the Upper House is fully recognised . Thus , the American Senate has 100 members , two from each state . This principle is regarded as a safeguard for smaller states. In India – Sikkim vs UP
dual citizenship
federal laws are enforced by federal judiciary and the state laws by state judiciary – India has integrated judiciary
separate public services – while India has all India services . Centre trains and control them
The Americans had to wage a civil war to establish that the States have no right of secession and that their federation was indestructible. The Drafting Committee thought that it was better to make it clear at the outset rather than to leave it to speculation or to dispute .Ambedkar used the term Union to make it clear that states had no right to secede from the Union to set themselves into separate States. He said that this Union was Federation and called it a flexible federation to say that it was not as rigid as the American Constitut ion was.
In the United States Constitution, “the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively or to the people.”
The powers are thus mutually exclusive and it was left to judicial interpretation to imply a limited field of concurrent legislative action.

Australia In Australia, the residuary powers are reserved with States, but the enumerated powers of the Commonwealth are not exclusive so that there is a large field of concurrent legislative action. In Australia , The enumerated powers of the Commonwealth are not exclusive so that there is a large field of concurrent legislative action.

Canada Canadian Constitution gave residuary powers to the Dominion . It contained double enumeration of exclusive legislative powers.
Seervai says, the framers preferred to borrow Section 92 of the Australian Constitution and couched Article 301 in similar language giving freedom of trade and commerce.

One- enumerated powers are given to the Union and residuary power to States as in the US and Australia. Two-enumerated powers are given to the States and residuary powers being given to the Union as in Canada.

India The Indian federal system is based on the ‘Canadian model’ and not on the ‘American model’ .The ‘Canadian model’ differs fundamentally from the ‘ American model’in so far as it establishes a very strong centre . The Indian federation resembles the Candian federation (i) in its formation(i.e.,by way of disintegration);(ii)in its preference to the term ‘Union’( the Canadian federation is also called a ‘Union’) ; and (iii) in its centralising tendency (i.e., vesting more powers in the centre vis-a-vis the states).


CONFEDERATION the units dominate the Union. In a Confederation, there will be an alliance between independent states where units can secede.
Unitary state the Union dominates the Units . In Unitary State the legislatures of Units derive power from Central Legislature.
Federation Union and Units are co-equal . Division of legislative powers, each unit being sovereign in its own sphere.

What is Federalism Basic feature Autonomy vs national integrity

The basic principle of federalismis that the legislative and executive authority is partitioned between the Centre and the states not by any law to be made by the Centre but by the Constitution itself
“It represents a compromise between the following two conflicting considerations
(i) normal division of powers under which states enjoy autonomy within their own spheres;and
(ii)need for nationa lintegrity and a strong Union government under exceptional circumstances.”

Indian Federalism Flexible Federalism Ambedkar – both unitary as well as federal according to the requirements of time and circumstances.
However it is called “cooperative federalism” as the states are expected to cooperate with each other.
quasi – federa

Federal Features Unitary Features
Dual Polity Strong centre + states can be altered
Written Constitution ( its acknowledged by the constitution that whatever is said in it will and has to be implemented )
Rigid constitution – those provisions which are concerned with the federal structure(i.e.,Centre–state relations and judicial organi-sation) can be amended only by the joint action of the Central and state governments .Such provisions require for their amendment a special majority ofthe Parliament and also an approva lof half of the state legislatures. Flexible constitution – Constitution can be amended by the unilateral action of the Parliament , either by simple majority or by special majority . Further , the power to initiate an amendment to the Constitution lies only with the Centre. In US, the states can also propose an amendment to the Constitution .
Supremacy of Constitution ( i.e. everything as per constitution and not arbitrary action ) Single constitution – States cant make their own constitution .. Except J & K
Division of Powers – Lists the Union List contains more subjects than the State List. Secondly, themore important subjects have been includedintheUnionList.Thirdly,theCentrehas overriding authority over the Concurrent List.Finally , the residuary powers have also been left with the Centre ,while in the US, they are vested in the states . Thus, the Constitution has made the Centre very strong –
Independent judiciary
Bicameralism – ( smaller than germany powers as in germany rajya sabha , it ) ( lok sabha represents the people while rajya sabha represents the states ) No equality in state representation (unlike USA , 2 from each state – Here sikkim gets 1 , while UP gets 80 )
State s Not Inde struc ti bl e – by simple majority . The American Federation , on the other hand, is described as “an in destructible Union of in destructible states”
Emergency Provisions
Single Citizenship
Integrated Judiciary ( unlike USA – federal laws are enforced by federal judiciary and the state laws by state judiciary )
All-India Services- In US , the Federal government and the state governments have their separate public services .In India also, the Centre and the states have their separate public services .But, in addition, there are all-India services (IAS, IPS, and IFS) which are common to both the Centre and the states . The members of these services are recruited and trained by the Centre which also possess ultimate control over them. Thus, the seservices violate the principle of federalism under the Constitution.
Parliament control over state list and concurrent list
Appointment of Governor
Integrated Audit , Election , Intelligence , etc Machinery
Veto over state bills


245 • Territorial and extraterritorial extent of Central and territorial extent of state legislation ; Art 245
The Parliament can make laws for territory and extra – territorial legislation . i.e the whole or any part of the territory of India and the laws of the Parliament are also applicable to the Indian citizens and their property in any part of the world.
A state legislature can make laws for the whole or any part of the state.

Note: Territorial power of Parliament overlaps with territorial power with state so solution kya hai.……. Solution hai next article … Art 246. which enumerates seventh schedules .. i.e union + state + concurrent lists clearly ..
Territorial powers of Parliament also is in conflict of union territories, so The President can make regulations for the peace, progress and good government of the four Union Territories—the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu .A regulation so made has the same force and effect as an act of Parliament
Territorial powers of Parliament also is in conflict of Scheduled areas… so , The governor is empowered to direct that an act of Parliament does not apply to a scheduled area in the state or apply with specified modifications and exceptions
Territorial powers of Parliament also is in conflict of tribal areas , so The Governor of Assam may likewise direct that an act of Parliament does not apply to a tribal area (autonomous district) in the state or apply with specified modifications and exceptions. The President enjoys the same power with respect to tribal areas ( autonomous districts) in Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
Parliament do have a power to make laws for citizens who are in Indian territory but it is again limited by fundamental rights
Parliament can pass bills regulating anything , subject to the the basic structure of the constitution and conformity of the constitution itself .
Parliament and state can delegate the power of law making according to the change in local conditions, provided standards for guidance are provided in the act; i.e. pachayat act must be passed by parliament to empower local bodies to make laws at the village level.. constitution did say u should make an act to do so.. else u cant delelgate ur work to below levels ..

• Parl iam en t ary leg i slat ion in t h e st at e f ield; an d
• Cen t re’s con t rol over st at e leg i slat ion

246 • Distribution of legislative subjects; – A/q SEVENTH Schedule Doctorine of pith and substance

List 1 – Union List Parliament has exclusive powers
The matters of national importance and the matters which requires uniformity of legislation nation wide are included in the Union List

List 2 – State list State legislature has exclusive powers “in normal circumstances”
The matters of regional and local importance and the matters which permits diversity of interest are specified in the State List.
Thus , the extra-ordinary circumstances where the Constitution Parliament should make laws with respect to any matter enumerated in the State List are :
When Rajya Sabha Passes a Resolution : Su ch a resolution supported by not less than twothirds of the members present and voting. The resolution shall remain in force for one year; it can be renewed any number of times but not exceeding one year at a time.
During a National Emergency
When States ( not a state , but states ) Make a Request
To Implement International Agreements Teesta treaty- Mamta banerjee
During President’s Rule

Even “in normal circumstances” , Centre to exercise control over the state’s legislative matters
The president enjoys absolute veto over the bills reserved by the governor for president’s assent , which have been passed by the state legislature
During a financial emergency , the President can direct the states to reserve money bills and other financial bills passed by the state legislature for his consideration
Bills on certain matters enumerated in the State List can be introduced in the state legislature only with the previous sanction of the president. (For example, the bills imposing restrictions on the freedom of trade and commerce).

List 3 – Concurrent List Both , the Parliament and state legislature can make laws
Thus,it permits diversity along with uniformity. The matters on which uniformity of legislation throughout the country is desirable but not essential are enumerated in the concurrent list.

International Residuary powers only Parliament
In US , federal govt has a specified list of powers . Rest all powers ( which u can say residuary ) are left to the states. Same as Australia..
In Canada and in India , on the other hand, there is a double enumeration —Federal and Provincial , and the residuary powers are vested in the Centre.
Th e Govern m en t of I n dia (GoI ) Act of 1935 provided f or a t h ree-f old em u m en rat ion , viz ., f ederal , provin cial an d con cu rren t , and concurrent powers in hands of Governor general of India

In case of a conflict between the Central law and the state law on a subject enumerated in the Concurrent List, the Central law prevails over the state law.

However, there is an exception — if a state legislature passes a law that contradicts a Central legislation, and that law is reserved for the president’s consideration and receives his assent, then the state law shall prevail on the issue.

The core idea of having three lists can be summarised in the following way. There are some subjects that need uniform treatment across the country (currency, defence), which should be on the Union list. Some subjects have a local character and each state may be best positioned to decide on the way to handle them — these can be included on the state list. There is a third category of items, on which some level of national uniformity is desirable but with the flexibility to tailor to local needs — these can be included in the concurrent list. Therefore, one way to deal with concurrent list items is for Parliament to make a skeletal law, leaving room for states to fill in the details according to local requirements.

Doctorine of Pith and substance Where the question arises of determining whether a panicular law relates to a particular subject mentioned in one list or another, the court looks to the substance of the matter. Thus, if the substance falls within Union List, then the incidental encroachment by the law on the Stale List does not make it invalid


Land acquisition, for example, falls within the concurrent list. The question is whether a uniform law — the Central land acquisition act — is workable for a country with a high level of diversity in population density, land use, economic development, geographical features etc . Would it have been better for Parliament to outline the main principles and let states work out the details of the process of acquisition, compensation etc?
The new government in Rajasthan has piloted amendments to four labour laws (a concurrent list subject), which have been passed by the Rajasthan assembly and sent to the president for his consideration. These include amendments to the Factories Act to define a factory as a unit with 20 workers if using energy and 40 workers otherwise (increased from 10 and 20 workers, respectively), to the Industrial Disputes Act to require employers having 300 workers or more to take the state government’s permission for retrenchments (earlier this was 100 workers or more), to the Contract Labour Act to cover establishments with over 50 employees (earlier 20), and to the Apprentices Act to reduce the training period, allow third-party training and set the minimum pay for apprentices at the level of unskilled labour. If the president gives his assent, these amendments will be valid in Rajasthan.
Rajasthan has also passed the Rajasthan State Highways Act, which makes it easier to acquire land for state highways. This act regulates and provides a process for the acquisition of land for them. This process differs from the Central land acquisition act. The Central act has a detailed procedure that can take about 50 months to be completed, if one assumes that all sequential steps take the maximum permitted time. The Rajasthan act skips some steps — including the social impact analysis and the need to procure the consent of landowners — and the acquisition can be completed in 81 days. It also reduces the compensation provided for acquisition in rural areas, which in the Central act is between two and four times the market value, depending on the proximity to an urban area. The Rajasthan act mandates compensation of twice the market value if the distance is less than 20 kilometres and two-and-a-half times for greater distances. This law takes advantage of a provision in the Central act, which contains a list of 13 laws that are exempt from it and allows the Central government to modify the list through a notification. The Rajasthan act proposes that it be added to this list.
These examples show instances of a state taking the lead on certain legislative issues. It remains to be seen whether other states will follow in a similar manner on issues on the concurrent list.

Administrative relations ( executive relations- i.e. law + administration ) power of execution Dil se samajh mei nhi aaya .. Art 365

Executive powers
In subjects of Union list , the ex ecutive power of the Centre extends to the whole of India ..( i.e. centre duty to maintain/execute union list subjects.. Like defence , communications , etc…)
In subjects of state list , t h e ex ecu t ive power of a st at e ex t en ds t o i t s t erri t ory in respect of m at t ers on wh ich t h e st at e leg i slat u re h as ex clu sive power of leg i slat ion.. ( exclusive mane ki.. parliament ye na keh diya.. ki us state list mei hum interfere kar rhe.. )
In subjects of concurrent list , the executive power rests with the states except when a Constitution al provision or a parliamentary law specifically confers it on the Centre. — note , in legislative power , centre had the power for concurrent list.. but state has the executive power in concurrent list

Lekin , executive power state ka badh gya.. To usko regulate karne ke liye kuch law banana hoga… so flows next article… ( dekho.. Legislative powers mei bhi to check teritotity jurisdiction btn union and states , list were introduced .. Here .. To check states , rules are imposed… similar types… list bana ke centre ko check , rules bana ke states ke executiv action ko check

Check /obligation of exercise of executive powers

The ex ecutive power of every state is to be exercised in such a way
(a) as to ensure compliance with the laws made by the Parliament and any existing law which apply in the state;

and if states fail to comply with the Pariament laws , then

Article 365 says that where any state has failed to comply with (or to give effect to) any directions given by the Centre, it will be lawfulf or the President to hold that a situation has arisen in which the government of the state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution. It means that , insuch a situation, the President’s rule can be imposed in the state under Article356.

isse pretect ke meddenazar Nehruji ke Left govt ko Kerela se dismiss kiya tha..
Issi pretext pe Indira gandhi ne non-conress states pe phir se election karwaya tha
issii pretext pe BJP maang kar rhi hai.. Ki mulayam sarkar ko dismiss kiya jaye…

Mutual Delegation of Functions/powers leads to cooperative federalism coopeartion ka uttam example.. To be used and written in exams

“Th e di st ribu t ion of leg i slat ive powers between t h e Cen t re an d t h e st at es i s rig id. Con sequ en t ly , t h e
Cen t re can n ot deleg at e i t s leg i slat ive powers t o t h e st at es an d a sin g le st at e can n ot requ est t h e
Parl iam en t t o m ak e a law on a st at e su bject . Th e di st ribu t ion of ex ecu t ive power in g en eral f ol lows
t h e di st ribu t ion of leg i slat ive powers. Bu t , su ch a rig id divi sion in t h e ex ecu t ive sph ere m ay lead t o
occasion al con f l ict s between t h e two. Hen ce, t h e Con st i t u t ion pr-ovides f or in t er-g overn m en t
deleg at ion of ex ecu t ive f u n ct ion s in order t o m i t ig at e rig idi t y an d avoid a si t u at ion of deadlock”

President can with the consent of the state government ,entrust to that government any of the executive functionsof the Centre. Parliament can, without state’s consent also impose its executive functions by a legislation. ( carrot and stick policy )
Conversely ,the governorof a state may,with the consent of the Central government, entrust to that government any of the executive functions of the state.

Ex ; adjudication of any dispute of any inter-state river by parliament ( yahan consent na bhi ho ek party ka.. Tab bhi parliament bna sakta hai… to maintain peace.. And settle matter )
Ex: setting up of Inter – state council by president.. ( yahan consent se hoga.. Isliye president aa gye.. )

Tabs Al l -Indi a Se rvi c e s P ubl i c Se rvi c e Commi ssi ons Inte grate d Judi c i al System Re l ati ons Duri ng Eme rge nc i e s Constituional – Non constitutional bodies

Financial Relations by Finance Commission special category states

Taxation as per Lists

Union list- The Parliament has exclusive power to levy taxes on subjects enumerated in the Union List
State List-The state legislature has exclusive power to levy taxes on subjects enumerated in the State List
Concurrent List- Both the Parliament and the state legislature can levy taxes on subjects enumerated in the Concurrent List
Residuary powers – The residuary powe rof taxation (that is, the power to impose taxes not enumerated in any of the three lists) is svested in the Parliament.

Distribution of Tax/Non Tax Revenues

As per recommendations of Finance commission See finance commission

Grants-in-Aid to the States Statutory + Discretionary grants

The Constitution provides for grants-in -aid to the states from the Central resources.
Th ere are two t y pes of g ran t s-in -aid, viz ,

Statutory Grants Parliament to m ake grants to the states which are in need of financial assistance and not to every state.
Discretionary Grants Both the Centre and the states to make any grants for any public purpose, even if it is not within their respective legislative competence.Under this provision, the Centre makes grants to the states on the recommendations of the Planning Commission—an extra- constitutional body.

Finance commission

Distribution of tax Th e di st ribu t ion of t h e n et proceeds of t ax es t o be sh ared between t h e Cen t re an d t h e st at es, an d t h e al locat ion between t h e st at es, t h e respect ive sh ares of su ch proceeds.
Grant – in – aid Th e prin ciples wh ich sh ou ld g overn t h e g ran t s-in -aid t o t h e st at es by t h e Cen t re (i .e., ou t of t h e Con sol idat ed Fu n d of I n dia).

Borrowing by the Centre and the States

Cen t ral g overn m en t can m ak e loan s t o an y st at e or g ive g u aran t ees in respect of loan s rai sed by an y st at e.
Cen t ral g overn m en t can borrow ei t h er wi t h in I n dia or ou t side u pon t h e se-cu ri t y of t h e Con sol idat ed Fu n d of I n dia
St at e g overn m en t can borrow wi t h in I n dia (an d n ot abroad) u pon t h e secu ri t y of t h e Con sol idat ed Fu n d of t h e St at e
A st at e can n ot rai se an y loan wi t h ou t t h e con sen t of t h e Cen t re, i f t h ere i s st i l l ou t -st an din g an y part of a loan m ade t o t h e st at e by t h e Cen t re or in respect of wh ich a g u aran t ee h as been g iven by t h e Cen t re

However , financial allocation of states can be altered during emergency

Issues of Conflict btn centre and state
Mode of appointment and dismissal of governor
Discriminatory and partisan role of governors
Imposition of President’s Rule for partisan interests ;
Deployment of Central forces in the states to maintain law and order;
Reservation of state bills for the consideration of the President
Discrimination in financial allocations to the state
Management of All-India Services ( IAS, IPS, and IFS)
Sharing of finances ( between Centre and states);
Encroachment by the Centre on the State List.

Reports on Centre state relations ARC Sarkaria Punchi Anandpur Sahib Resolution

Federalism which is nowhere mentioned in the constitution but interpreted by our judiciary as the basic feature so we must evolve a spirit of cooperative federalism so that national interest could be served.


1. Discuss the major extra-constitutional factors influencing the working of federal polity in India. (00/15)
“Ans – Role of planning commission and its discretionary grants – role of NCTC ( pub-ad ) , while maintaining law and order i.e. police is under state list ..( though national security inder state list ) , Direct cash transfer from the centre to the public , thus by-passing the state machinery + Centrally sponsered schemes which have grown due to welfarism do not count states in their formulation process States become implementing agencies only . , polity – rise of regional parties giving demands for local aspirations + though centre authorised to execute international treaties , but the consent of concerned states must also be involved ( teesta treaty + TN parties against UNHRC resolution opposing central govt ) + creation of state on a basis of language – this point I may be wrong bcoz constitution authorises creation of states ) + manipur issue over control of minierals ( geography ) + implementation of GST i.e {Globalisation has had a contradictory role; It has increased revenue to the state in form of taxes and investment but at same time demand for uniform taxation policy in the entire country is made. } ( economic ) + Bodies like NIC, ZOnal COuncils, NDC must be mentioned – read abt them plz.. The allocation of resources and deployment of army and paramilitary troops by centre has been questioned and debated by states..+ civil society groups like Anna hazare movement compelled the union government to bring a bill to setup a Lokapal at center & Lokayukta at states level. But State government feel that setting up of Lokayukta under central legislation is against the federal structure and bill could not be passed in the council of states… Even the UGC in considered extra constitutional. Because education is in concurrent list and it provides a scope for cooperation between centre and state in matters related to higher education.

Conclusion : principle of subsidiarity + basic feature doctorine + cooperative federalism + Punchi and Sarkaria commisison report will help ”
2. Discuss the financial relations between thecentre and the states in the light of recent controversies. (01/30)
Ans – the share of distribution of finances btn centre and state is fixed by the finance commission + role of planning commission to allocate resources + grant-in-aids via statutory and discretionary grants + central funds in case of disaster /natural calamity – contigency fund of India + The centre lends extra aid to backward and hilly states ( from Bihar demand for a special category state , I can get a clue ) + The FRBM act (2003) has given some financial autonomy to states. They can now borrow money from the market to finance developmental projects in the state + use of loan waivers , regressive taxation ( to promote a particular region for banlanced development )
3. What are the constitutional restrictions imposedupon the power of borrowing of the state governments? (04/2)
Ans – states cant borrow outside India but with other states and centre + cant raise loan without state’s consent
4. Comment on the financial relations between the Union and the States in India, Has post-1991 liberalization in any way affected it? (05/30)
“Intro: The Centre State financial relations are well delineated in Indian Constitution. Subjects on which each holds authority of taxation follow framework given in Schedule 7 . ( why asked / present situation ) – Howver States are dissatisfied with the dependence of states on Union government for grants as actual administration takes at state level while states are not provided commensurate financial autonomy. CMs have complained states are treated as municipalities by centre. Another grievance that has been raised is the increasing status of Planning Commission in fund allocation. The increasing stature of a non statutory and non constitutional body that functions on a Top Down approach i.e. centralized planning is opposed to.

First part .. See ans 2… implementation of GST i.e {Globalisation has had a contradictory role; It has increased revenue to the state in form of taxes and investment but at same time demand for uniform taxation policy in the entire country is made. } ( economic ) Welcome changes: Schemes like RKVY, JNNURM etc. give considerable scope for state autonomy in deciding where to channelise the funds e.g. flexi-funds. State specific solutions for state specific problems.”
5. Discuss the major extra-constitutional factors influencing the federal polity in India. (08/30)

6. Examine the demand for greater state autonomy and its impact on the smooth functioning of Indian polity. (2008/15 )
“Ans .. view why union form vs federal form …
Demand for seperate telangana vs khaistan vs J& K
Legis.. State vs Union vs concurrent — .. Normal vs extraordinary
Executive … public service + judiciary + constitutional bodies +
Financial … borrowings + collection + distribution + finance commission + grant – in – aids
Political – party – one vs regional .. + role of governors + emergency rule
Pub ad – Governance + scheme implementation + grievance redressal + police + constituional bodies
History – art + culture ( aspirations to language , preservation of culture as in jharkhand , territory as in uttarakhand ) ties to govt nearby

Solution :
Govt initiatives : role of finance commission + sarkaria + punchi

Conclusion : Hence Centre must hold the critical portfolios like defense, communication and foreign policy and devolve more powers to states without compromising the unity of India , based on the principle of subsidiarity .”
7. Discuss the administrative relations between the centre and the states in the light of recent controversies. (2001/30)

Union vs state vs Concurrent list
The Seventh Schedule of the Constitution contains three lists which enumerate the items that fall under the purview of the Union, the states and both (the concurrent list). Both Parliament and state legislatures can make laws on items that fall within the concurrent list. If there is a contradiction in the laws passed, the Central law shall prevail.
However, there is an exception — if a state legislature passes a law that contradicts a Central legislation, and that law is reserved for the president’s consideration and receives his assent, then the state law shall prevail on the issue.

governmental restraints on ‘personal liberty’ should be collectively tested against the guarantees of fairness, non-arbitrariness and reasonableness that were prescribedunder Articles 14, 19 and 21 of the Constitution.

“governmental restraints on ‘personal liberty’ should be collectively
tested against the guarantees of fairness, non-arbitrariness and
reasonableness that were prescribedunder Articles 14, 19 and 21 of the
Constitution. The Court developed a theory of ‘inter-relationship of rights’
to hold that governmental action which curtailed either of these rights should
meet the designated threshold for restraints on all ofthem. In this manner,
the Courts incorporated the guarantee of‘substantive due process’ into the
language of Article 21”

 the previous government decided to effect a significant restructuring in one channel of transferring funds to states. Centrally sponsored schemes – 146 in number – were first consolidated into 83, both through mergers and termination. Then, it was decided that instead of the funds for these being allocated to the relevant ministry at the Centre, which, consequently, effectively owned the scheme, the Union finance ministry would directly transmit the funds for each scheme to the state governments that were implementing them. 

A Finance Commission is set up every five years to recommend measures for sharing o resources between the Centr e and the States, mainly pertaining to the Tax Revenue collected by the Central Government.
Presently the recommendations made by the 13th Finance Commission are in effect (from 2010-11 to 2014-15), whereby 32 percent o f th e s h a r e a b le /d iv is ib le pool of Centr al tax r evenue is transferred to States every year and the Centre retains the remaining amount for the Union Budget.

The arrangements for federal financial relations were set up in the Government of India Act, 1935.The Finance Commission is a legacy of that time. Why not have a permanent finance commission which can regulate Centre-state financial relations in a transparent and constitutionally legitimate way?